Abstract: The article presents the diagnosis of contamination of light chestnut soils of Volzhsky, Volgograd region with petroleum products and heavy metals using various bioindicators: earthworms of the genus Lumbricus rubbellus and fungus of the genus Botryitis cinerea. The following indicators of bioindication of soil pollution were identified: the survival rate of the earthworms Lumbricus rubbellus, the total microbial number of light chestnut and the mycelium mass of the fungus of the genus Botrytis cinerea. In clay and sandy light chestnut soils that are contaminated with oil and petroleum products, the mortality of earthworms of the genus Lumbricus rubellus was noted on day 7. After 7 days, the spores of the Botrytis cinerea fungus began to grow on the control and light chestnut sandy soil of gas station number 3, and after 14 days – on other soils. The survival rate of earthworms depends on the quality of petroleum products and does not depend on the granulometric composition of soils. The largest total microbial number of light chestnut soil, estimated by the Botrytis cinerea fungus, is observed in the sandy soil of gas station number 3 (133333 CFU/cm3 of water soil extract), and the smallest – in the clay soil of gas station number 1 (6773 CFU/cm3 of water soil extract).
Abstract: In this article some measures are discussed to improve the yields and quality of organic (and conventional) agriculture with sea minerals, ditch dredge and rock flours.
Sea minerals restore the health of plants, animals and men. These sea minerals result in healthy urine and dung of the animals. This dung is a good basis for a healthy plant growth. The dung should also be mixed with carbon rich materials (straw; elephant grass; natural hay) and with earth, stone meal or ditch dredge. By binding the nutrients with carbon and earth particles the putrefactive microbes are avoided and in this way the breakdown of organic nutrients in inorganic salts is prevented. The symbiotic microbes hold the upper hand. They transform the nutrients in microbial protein and other organic compounds, and, once in the fields, help the plants to collect the organically bound nutrients from the soil and humic compounds and transport them to the plants.
Rock flours are also a good source of fresh macro and trace elements. The preferable type of rock flour depends among others on the type of soil, and the already available elements. Microbes are necessary for freeing the elements from the rock flours.
The yields and the quality in organic agriculture rise then for three reasons: more plant available macro and trace elements for the crops. And the presence of the symbiotic microbes which free and supply the nutrients for the plants. To support these farmers in animal husbandry should give less protein and especially less Non Protein Nitrogen and Non Protein Sulfur in the feed of the animals in order to improve the quality of the dung and the compost.
For many centuries farmers used salt, sea minerals, earth, ditch dredge and rock flours to improve the quality and quantity of the animal dung and plant residuals. And although some scientists have confirmed their results, the overwhelming majority of modern agricultural science has ignored this and persisted her own ideas about the necessary mineralization of nutrients before plants can take them up as salts for their growth.
Farmers who buy artificial fertilizers pay yearly 100-150 billion US dollars solely for the pollution of the environment, because of the huge losses of nitrogen and phosphate. Also a lot of potassium is lost, but the effects of potassium salts on the ecosystems are not investigated.
By the use of animal feed with less protein, and with less NPN and NPS, and by adding sea minerals, carbon rich materials, rock flour, earth or ditch dredge to the dung, the farmers can avoid the problems of mineralized nutrients. Especially the problems of ammonia, nitrate, potassium, chloride, sulphate and phosphate: less losses, better yields and quality by rebalancing, and more biodiversity at lower costs.
By avoiding ammonia, urea and nitrate plants can again assimilate nitrogen from the air. Considerable amounts of nitrogen can be got for free in this way. The risks of mineral nitrogen are avoided, if not too much of good organic fertilizers is given.
Abstract: For balanced approach to Sustainable Development Goals, the physical and chemical degradation of soils in result of oil pollution were studied. The data on the particle-size distribution and the content of chemical components in the soils of the Tamtsagbulag and Zuunbayan oil-producing areas are presented. Due to arid and could climate and geographical location of inland and mid-latitude highlands the studied soils are characterized by similar physical and chemical properties: high content of physical sand (particle size > 0.01 mm) up to 86-91 %, alkaline reaction pH up to 8.7-8.8, density of the solid phase 2.63-2.64 g/cm3. However, the total carbon content is much higher in Tamtsagbulag soils (kastanozem soils of dry steppe zone) than in Zuunbayan soils (semi-desert brown soils) – 1.07 and 0.24 % respectively. The content of petroleum hydrocarbons (HC) in the Zuunbayan soils varies from 9 to 60 mg/kg, in the Tamtsagbulag soils – from 7 to 670 mg/kg with a maximum in the vicinity of the operating wells. According to the level of hydrocarbon pollution, Zuunbayan soils can be attributed to uncontaminated (“background” concentration of HC, less than 100 mg/kg), Tamtsagbulag soils – from “background” concentration of HC up to “moderate level” of pollution (locally, near the well). Despite the locality and “moderate level” of oil pollution of Tamtsagbulag soils, a study conducted using remote sensing methods showed that pollution has a certain effect on vegetation cover. The maximum vegetation index value is some but reliably lower in an oilfield (within a radius of 4 km) than adjacent territory. For sustainable solutions planning of the oil production, transportation, and pollution prevention the transcendental Biogeosystem Technique methodology will be helpful for Land Degradation Neutrality implementation.